Jan Burse, created Sep 15. 2018
* This module provides access to decimal numbers. Among the ordinary
* access to decimal numbers that is available both for unlimited and
* limited precision decimal numbers, we also find access that is
* specific to limited precision decimal numbers. A decimal number is
* represented as follows according to the Java BigDecimal class:
* D = V * U * 10^(-S)
* V : The sign, -1, 0 or 1
* U : The unscaled value from the Java BigInteger class.
* S : The scale from the Java int class.
* For limited precision decimal numbers the order of magnitude of the
* unscaled value is determined as well. This is called the precision of
* the decimal number and it is independent of the scale of the decimal
* number. During limited precision arithmetic the precision is limited
* by a requested precision from a math context:
* 10^(P-1) <= U < 10^P
* P : The precision
* The evaluable functions scale/2, unscaled_value/2 and new_decimal/3 allow
* accessing and creating an unlimited or limited decimal number. The
* evaluable functions precision/2 and requested/2 allow accessing the
* current precision of a decimal number and the requested precision
* through a math context.
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* scale(X, S):
* Predicate succeeds in S with the scale of the decimal number X.
* unscaled_value(X, U):
* Predicate succeeds in U with the unscaled value of the decimal number X.
unscaled_value/2, 'SupplementScale', 1).
* new_decimal(U, S, D):
* The predicate succeeds in D with a decimal of unscaled value U and scale S.
new_decimal/3, 'SupplementScale', 2).
* precision(X, P):
* Predicate succeeds in P with the precision of the decimal number X.
precision/2, 'SupplementScale', 3).
* requested(C, P):
* Predicate succeeds in P with requested precision by the math context C.
requested/2, 'SupplementScale', 4).
* new_context(P, C):
* Predicate succeeds in C with a new math context of requested precision P.
new_context/2, 'SupplementScale', 5).